Multimodal and multimodel approach for estimation of soil organic carbon in agroecosystems

Miss Olga Sukhoveeva1

1Institute of geography RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation

We offer to use a complex multimodal approach including carbon calculators and simulation models to estimate soil organic matter in agroecosystems. These mathematical methods may help to evaluate content of soil carbon and CO₂ emission from each type of landscapes and forecast changes of carbon pools and fluxes.

We had approbated our method on the base of the Central Forest zone as one of the most important agricultural and economical regions of Russia. Taking into account soil type and growing crops in different administrative units, we distinguished 20 agrolandscapes over the period of 1990-2017. Totally 560 conceptual experiments were designed.

Calculators evaluate carbon balance or footprint in online regime. Unfortunately, they consider only anthropogenic factors, their coefficients in formulas can’t be corrected. We used Ex-ante carbon-balance tool (EX-ACT), Farm Carbon Cutting Toolkit (FCCT), Cool Farm Tool (CFT).

Models involve both natural and anthropogenic input and output parameters of carbon cycle. We used RothC (Rothamsted Carbon model) and DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), parametrized them according to local arable soils conditions using official statistical information and data taken from published sources. Results of multimodel estimation were verified against data of field experiments; modelled values were successfully compared with measurements.

The dynamics of organic carbon in soil depends on features of growing crops and input of organic fertilizers. In the northern regions (Kostroma, Tver) spring barley and oat are dominated, and the losses of organic carbon from soil are typical due to absence of organic fertilizers in cropping technologies. In central regions (Moscow, Kaluga, Yaroslavl) highly productive winter wheat and potato are grown. They are characterized by use of great amount of fertilizers resulting in general accumulation of carbon in the soils.

The research was supported by Fundamental scientific research theme 01201352499 (0148-2018-0006) and Fundamental research program of Presidium of RAS No 51 (0148-2018-0036).


PhD in Geography; Junior researcher at the Laboratory for anthropogenic changes in the climate system; Institute of Geography, Russian academy of sciences. She is the author of more than 50 scientific publications. Area of research involves application of mathematical methods in geography including statistical and simulation modelling biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems and evaluation of regional climate change and its impact on agriculture.

Factors controlling long-term organic carbon dynamics in the soils of Germany

Dr Andreas Möller1

1Federal Institute For Geosciences And Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany

In the past decades the common hypotheses for long-term soil organic matter dynamics was based on controlling factors like biomass source, sorption and desorption processes, climate, land use and soil texture. New research, however, revealed that this hypothesis may have to be adapted and other factors may be more relevant. The major problem is that most factors controlling long-term organic carbon dynamics are connected to each other. Thus, the selection of causal model parameters is essential to eliminate translucent causalities. It is already common understanding that biomass source and carbon pools are not relevant in the long-term. All physically reachable carbon gets microbial degraded over time, even charcoal. Hence, which are the parameters truly triggering the differentiation of organic carbon stocks in soil? A statistical evaluation of Germany wide topsoil data, including data from the state geological surveys of Germany, showed that soil moisture conditions may be the key factor controlling soil organic carbon content apart from soil genesis and land use. Additionally, the age of the soil may also be relevant. Comparing soils of the younger Weichsel with the older Saale glacial era in the lowlands of northeast Germany showed significant differences over different soil moisture regimes. However, less the age of the soil may cause the difference, but more the mineral composition of the soils, similar to the effect known from podsols. Even after hundreds of years of intensive agriculture sandy podsols reveal significantly higher carbon content in the plowed layer than most other soils. On the other hand, factors like temperature and soil texture seem to be less important. The results show that the common hypothesis of long-term organic carbon dynamics in temperate soils may have to be review.


Since 03.2001                 Research associate at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in the unit “Soil Protection, Soil Analysis”; Focus on soil organic matter, carbon stocks, biochar, and technical cooperation

02.2012 – 01.2015         Secondment to the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology in the department “Agriculture, Soil Protection and Regional Planning”

05.2005 – 08.2017         Lecturer at the University of Hannover; Fundamentals of the WRB

11.1997 – 04.2001          PhD at the Department of Soil Science and Geography, University of Bayreuth; Thesis: Dynamics of organic matter in the mountain forest ecosystem of N-Thailand

10.1994 – 05.1997          Geography at the University of Erlangen

Long-term effects of straw removal on soil carbon dynamics in sugarcane cropping systems in south-central Brazil

Dr Ricardo Bordonal1, Dr Dener Oliveira2, Dr Douglas Weiler3, Dra Eleanor Campbell4, Dr Maurício Cherubin5, MSc Sarah Tenelli1, Dra Simone Correa1, Dr Carlos Eduardo Cerri5, Dr João Luís Carvalho1

1CTBE/CNPEM – Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, National Center for Research in Energy and Materials, Campinas, Brazil, 2Instituto Federal Goiano, Campus Posse, Posse, Brazil, 3Instituto Federal Farroupilha, Campus Panambi, Panambi, Brazil, 4University of New Hampshire, Durham, United States, 5ESALQ/USP – Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Piracicaba, Brazil

Brazil is the major producer of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) with a production of 615-million-ton from a cultivated area of 9 million hectares, accounting for 40% of global sugarcane production. Large-scale energy demand has triggered new approaches to sugarcane straw as a promising solution to increase bioenergy production (bioelectricity and cellulosic ethanol) in Brazil. However, the maintenance of straw in the fields ensures the continued provision of ecosystem services such as soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which plays a critical role to maintaining soil quality and increasing the resilience of agroecosystems to extreme climatic events. The approach taken in this work was to simulate the temporal dynamics of SOC to a 0.3-m depth, validating the DayCent model through field experiment data, and finally to make predictions of the effects of straw removal scenarios (TR–total removal; MR–moderate removal; and NR–no removal) on long-term SOC changes in sugarcane areas under contrasting edaphoclimatic conditions in south-central Brazil. The DayCent model estimates were consistent (r = 0,99; P < 0.05) with the field-observed SOC changes in clayey and sandy soils. The DayCent simulations from 2014 to 2050 showed that TR depleted SOC at a rate of -0.39 and -0.21 Mg ha-1 year-1 in clayey and sandy soils, respectively. While MR did not modify SOC at any soil types, the long-term data indicated that NR resulted in SOC accretion of 0.35 and 0.29 Mg ha-1 year-1 in clayey and sandy soils, respectively. By 2050, SOC stocks under TR and MR in clayey soil were predicted to be 70% and 85% of those observed in NR, while in sandy soil TR and MR were 48% and 72% relative to NR. This study provides new insights to stakeholders for developing improved straw management strategies towards greater sustainability for bioenergy production in Brazil.


Ricardo is researcher at the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory, based in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. His research is focused on climate-smart agriculture with emphasis on soil quality assessment under different agricultural and land management practices in sugarcane cropping systems, with emphasis on SOM dynamics. Ricardo is engaged in research projects whose main objective is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the sugarcane industry by increasing the use of solid residues from the agroindustry (bagasse and sugarcane straw) to generate surplus eletricity.

Measurement and modelling-induced discrepancies in the long-term contribution of root and added biomass to carbon sequestration in a permanent grassland soil

Dr Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil1, Dr Dario A. Fornara2, Dr Bruce Arthur Osborne1

1UCD SBES and CRAES-EI, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland, 2Agri-Food & Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Belfast, United Kingdom

International efforts focused on environmentally-friendly agricultural production often place a particular emphasis on soil organic carbon (SOC) as it contributes to improved soil health and sustainable development goals. The direct quantification  of SOC remains a complicated challenge due to large spatial and temporal variability, as well as sampling-associated errors. Modelling approach can minimize the large-scale variability of SOC and identify whether an ecosystem is either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2 and its potential to offset greenhouse gas emissions. For a temperate grassland soil, managed with inorganic fertilizer and animal slurry, the SOC density (ρ) and its annual change (ΔSOCρ) over 45 years simulations using the Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC95) model were compared with measured values. The measured data for  SOCρ at 0-15 cm depth for unfertilized and urea-fertilized fields (73-77 t-C-ha-1) were significantly higher, relating to a larger contribution from plant roots, than the simulated values (54-55). Despite some variations, SOCρ was greater with cattle amendments (88-99 vs. 66-116 t-C-ha-1) than with  pig slurry (75-78 vs. 55-69). The simulated values correlated significantly well with the measured values  (R2=0.66). The model-estimates revealed increased C sequestration with increasing added-C. Regardless of treatments, the measured and simulated sequestration rate was 0.46±0.06 and 0.37±0.01 t-C-ha-1-yr-1, respectively. The variations in simulated-SOCρ could be explained by differences in added-C (62%), rainfall (15%) and air temperature (11%). Sensitivity tests demonstrated that SOCρ increased with increasing bulk density, inherent SOC concentration and clay fraction (R2 = 0.77-0.99). The ΔSOCρ decreased with bulk density and SOC (R2 = -0.99) and increased with clay fraction and pH (R2 = 0.89-0.97). These findings imply that a new SOC-equilibrium had not been reached in over 45 years. The DNDC95 could provide an accurate representation of the key drivers but predict smaller contribution of roots to SOC build-up.


Dr. M. Ibrahim Khalil is a Sr. Environmental Scientist and Modeler attached with University College Dublin, Ireland, and leading a multi-disciplinary research group (Climate-Resilient Agri-Environmental Systems, CRAES). Dr. Khalil is an agricultural graduate with honours, double masters and PhD in environmental soil science, completed with a Belgian scholarship. He was an awardee of IAEA traineeship and did post-doctoral research with the prestigious fellowships awarded by the Royal Society (UK), Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (Germany) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan). Dr. Khalil  has been leading and coordinating a large number of externally-funded research projects, and published more than 150 scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals/book chapters/proceedings; member of editorial board and reviewer  for international journals. He has expertise in the key research areas of Biogeochemistry of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles, Monitoring, Modelling and Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases/trace gases and SOC density/stocks; Climate Change and Adaptation.


Plant biomass inputs and soil organic carbon dynamics in woodlands and pastures of central Queensland

Mr Stuart Irvine-Brown1, Dr Usha Pillai-McGarry2, Professor David Mulligan2, Prof Damian Barrett3

1Queensland Dept. Agriculture and Fisheries, Nambour, Australia, 2Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia, 3Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra, Australia

Above and below ground plant biomass inputs to soil and their effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within single and mixed species woodland and pasture areas of Central Queensland was investigated.  The major pathway by which carbon is naturally sequestered in soil is through the delivery and decomposition of plant derived inputs.  Uncertainty remains about the source and turnover of plant biomass inputs to soil from woodland and pasture vegetation types found in Central Queensland.  This study reports on the quantification of above and below ground plant biomass inputs (excluding coarse woody debris), its decomposition over 48 weeks, and its subsequent influence on SOC and constituent fractions within single and mixed species woodland and pasture systems common to scrublands and rangelands of Central Queensland.  In situ decomposition of plant components (leaves, sticks/twigs/stems, bark-flowers and fruits, and roots) was followed by SOC analysis for carbon fractions.  Site specific field measurements were used to improve existing default parameter settings to calibrate the FullCAM model for predicting change in carbon stocks from different types of plant inputs into soil over time using long-term weather records.  Results indicate there is greater SOC content in mixed woodland in comparison to single species woodland, and in single species pasture in comparison to mixed species pasture, although the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05).  SOC decreased, particularly in the ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to humus organic carbon (HOC), over the duration of litter decomposition.  This study improves the understanding of how different forms, quantities, and quality of plant biomass inputs relate to increases and decreases in SOC at a site specific scale.  Comparison of 45-year (1970 to 2015) FullCAM model simulations with measured field study values showed encouraging carbon estimation in woodland but large disparity with quantified pasture values.


I am a soil scientist and horticulturist working across the state of Queensland on horticultural agronomy research and industry development for extension on issues of sustainability, resource base conservation and improvement to catchment scale water quality. My interests lie in sustainable international agriculture and natural resource management with a key focus on innovation and diversity in sub-tropical and tropical horticultural production systems linked to soil science.

The methodology for farm-scale modelling for spatio-temporal prediction of soil carbon sequestration under climate change

Emeritus Professor Lynette Abbott1, Ms Jolene Otway1, Dr  Louise  Barton1, Dr Jennifer  Dungait2

1The University Of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia, 2Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, United Kingdom

A methodology for region-specific adaptation of existing soil carbon (C) models was developed by integrating location-specific automated data with local farm-based knowledge. The aim was to optimise the balance between scientific accuracy and farm-scale practicality of C modelling tools to identify the most influential location-specific variables. The methodology identified region-superfluous inputs (through automation and region-insensitive data omission), incorporation of additional inputs to improve region-specific accuracy, tuning the regional model, and development of a Tool that could be used on-farm. The methodology was evaluated in south-western Australia using the RothC soil C turnover model. Automation and rainfall-based tuning of the RothC model were used to produce the south-western Australian RothC modelling (SWARM) Tool. The criticality of rainfall within the region provided both tuning direction and additional inputs for improving the accuracy of the automated “monthly rainfall” impact, through location-specific rainfall utilisation (e.g. accounting for water repellence) and compounded rainfall impacts (e.g. plant growth, soil cover, erosion). Integration of manual adjustments for high sensitivity inputs for this region with additional considerations of field-scale rainfall utilisation characteristics provided a soil C content potential relative to the location-specific tuned base case. The SWARM Tool delivers soil C modelling to the farm gate, facilitating estimation and education under the challenging future of agriculture-based incomes. The methodology presented in the creation of the SWARM Tool provides a template for adaption to any region across the globe for the provision of an accessible, practical and appropriately accurate information on the potential impact of climate change.


Lynette Abbott is an Emeritus Professor at The University of Western Australia whose research has focused on soil biological processes associated with nutrient acquisition by plants, bio-chemical and bio-physical processes involved in microbial responses to soil amendments and plant-microbial symbioses. The work presented here is a collaboration with Jolene Otway, a PhD candidate at the time of submission, investigating farm-based prediction of soil carbon sequestration.

POM versus MAOM: How a simple distinction can help resolve the SOM riddle

Dr Jocelyn Lavallee1, Jennifer L. Soong2, M. Francesca Cotrufo3

1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, United States, 2Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, United States, 3Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Fort Collins, United States

The recognition of fundamental differences between particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) is not new, but the recent explosion in our understanding of the complexity and heterogeneity of soil organic matter (SOM), coupled with the myriad methodological approaches to studying SOM have overshadowed this conceptual distinction and led to a muddling of ideas. We explore the historical origins and evolution of the POM versus MAOM distinction, weighing supporting evidence and contrasting views. We then use case studies from the SOM literature to demonstrate how assessing mechanisms separately for POM versus MAOM can clarify complicated results and help us move away from context-dependence to more generalizable conclusions that can be used in biogeochemical models. Finally, at a time when many exciting concepts in SOM formation and persistence are emerging and taking shape, we return to the fundamental concept of POM versus MAOM and use this distinction to contextualize new ideas and directions in SOM research and modelling.


Francesca Cotrufo is Professor and Associate Head at the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, and Senior Scientist at the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, at Colorado State University.  She earned B.Sc. from the University of Naples, Italy and Ph.D. from Lancaster University, UK. Dr. Cotrufo is internationally recognized for her work on litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation, and for the creative use of isotopic methodologies in these studies. More recently her team developed an integrated measurement-modelling approach to further improve the understanding of the mechanisms and drivers of formation and persistence of soil organic matter, and better predict soil organic matter changes in response to global environmental changes, disturbances, and management practices. Her overall goal is to contribute to the design and development of a research and decision support approach to facilitate soil health improvements and climate change mitigation and adaptation. She is subject editor of the journal Global Change Biology. To date she has published over 100 peer reviewed articles and several book chapters.



Modeling the effect of soil organic matter on microaggregate formation in soils and their influence on soil functions

Prof. Peter Knabner1, Dr. Nadja Ray1, M.Sc. Andreas  Rupp1, Dr. Alexander Prechtel1, Prof. Kai Totsche2, Prof. Ingrid Kögel-Knabner3

1University Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Mathematics, D 91058  Erlangen, Germany, 2University Jena Institute for Geosciences Geohydrology, D07749 Jena, Germany, 3Technical University Munich Chair of Soil Science, D85354 Freising, Germany

Microaggregates are the fundamental building blocks of soils and thus important for their structure, properties, and functions. Mathematically based modeling can facilitate the understanding of self-organization, formation, build-up, composition, properties, and stability of microaggregates provided that the complex coupling of biological, chemical and physical processes is taken into account.
Our model is based on a cellular automaton method (CAM) for the pore scale evolution of the solid , biomass and liquid (water, air) phases, all transport and reaction processes are described continuum mechanics based. In the CAM framework, prototypic solid building units quartz (spherical), goethite (needle-like), and illite (platy) are implemented to investigate the formation and self-organization of soil microaggregates. Interaction of these building units by means of stabilizing sticky agents (EPS) in combination with electrostatic attraction/repulsion lead to composite building units and eventually to soil microaggregates. Modern numerical techniques (DG methods) allow for the simulation of the full model The operational, comprehensive model allows rating the influencing factors for the formation of soil microaggregates and also investigating optimal aggregation conditions. Moreover, our modeling approach enables revealing the effect soil organic matter has as nucleus for the aggregation process.

Finally, soil’s characteristic properties such as porosity, effective diffusion tensors and permeabilities for the resulting complex geometries are deduced rigorously on the basis of such a detailed structure evolution and allow for Darcy scale simulations of flow and reactive transport taking into account the pore scale evolution at the level of detail described above. In this way it is possible to assess the impact of microaggregate formation on soil functions.


Peter Knabner studied mathematics and computer science in Berlin in Germany. He obtained a doctorate in mathematics 1983 and the habilitation 1988 in Augsburg. In 1992 he became group leader at the Weierstraß Institute in Berlin and in 1994 full professor and chair at the university Erlangen. He serves as associate editor for ‚Computational Geoscience‘.

Peter Knabner is author of more than  180 peer-reviewed publications in applied analysis, numerical mathematics and geohydrology. He is (co) author of 11  textbooks, dealing with numerics of partial differential equations, mathematical modelling, linear algebra and other subjects. He has supervised more than 40 doctorate students and habilitation candidates.

Since the 1980ies Knabner is focused on the derivation, analysis and numerical approximation of mathematical models for flow and transport in porous media. Meanwhile the subjects span up to multiphase multicomponent flows with vanishing/emerging phases, general chemical reaction networks and because of this evolving porous media.

Physico-chemical protection predicts soil carbon and nutrient availability across Australia

Prof. Elise Pendall1, Mr Jinquan Li1,2, Dr Ming Nie2, Dr Jeff Powell1, Dr Andrew Bissett3

1Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia, 2Fudan University, Shanghai, China, 3CSIRO, Hobart, Australia

Physico-chemical protection has been identified as an important mechanism for predicting soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrients, but its relative contribution is uncertain when considering concurrent regulatory effects of climate, plant productivity, and soil biodiversity. We used topsoil (0–10 cm) and subsoil (20–30 cm) from 628 sites across the Australian continent, spanning a broad range of climatic conditions and parent materials, and found that physico-chemical protection plays the most important role in determining SOC and nutrients, challenging current models in which these soil resources are controlled by climatic or biotic factors. The importance of protection factors is evident across soil depths and ecosystem types (i.e., tropical, temperate, arid, and cropland ecosystems). We acknowledge that distinguishing between physical and chemical processes can be arbitrary. However, our statistical approach provides insight into the relative importance of chemical protection mediated via redox mineral reactive sites compared to physical protection mediated by surface area. At the continental scale, SOC had the highest correlation with extractable iron (Fe), compared to all the other factors (including climate and biota) (r = 0.59 and 0.52 in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). Moreover, chemical protection had the highest predictive power for SOC in arid and cropland ecosystems while having the second most important predictive power in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Although physico-chemical protection played the most important role in predicting SOC and nutrient availability at continental and ecosystem scales, other drivers should also be considered. Climate, generally regarded as one of the primary controls, had both direct and indirect effects, but played a less significant role in predicting SOC or nutrients. Our results show that the soil matrix ultimately controls the fate of SOC and nutrients, and highlights that maintaining soil physico-chemical protection will help secure ecosystem sustainability.


Elise Pendall is Professor of Soil Science at Western Sydney University and serves as Theme Leader for the Soil Biology and Genomics research group at Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment. She studies responses of biogeochemical cycling to climate change, ecological disturbances and land management. She uses field and lab experiments and modelling to evaluate linkages between aboveground and belowground ecosystem components and how they regulate carbon, water and nutrient cycling in forests, grasslands, and crops.

Soil organic matter: Interactions, feedbacks and consequences for soil function, a dynamic modelling framework.

Prof. Bernard Cosby1, Claudia Cagnarini1, David Robinson1, Eleanor Blyth2, Chris Evans1, Rob Griffiths1, Laurence Jones1, Aiden Keith3, Inma Lebron1, Niall MacNamara3, Jeremy Puissant2, Sabine Reinsch1, Ed Rowe1, Simon Smart3, Amy Thomas1, Jeanette Whitaker3, Bridget Emmett1

1Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom, 2Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom

Sustainable land management under changing climate requires a modelling framework capable of simulating long-term landscape-scale changes in soil organic matter (SOM). The paradigm shift from SOM recalcitrance as “intrinsic property” to SOM persistence as “ecosystem interaction” suggests decadal-scale SOM models driven by landscape-scale characteristics might capture more realistic spatio-temporal SOM dynamics. We present a soil profile or pedon-explicit, landscape-scale framework for data and models of SOM distribution and dynamics. Landscape-scale drivers are integrated with pedon-scale processes in two zones of influence. SOM in the upper vegetative zone is affected primarily by plant inputs (above and belowground), climate, microbial activity and physical aggregation. Biotic transformations between states/pools are rapid but prone to surface disturbances increasing risk of SOM loss. SOM dynamics in the lower mineral-matrix zone are controlled primarily by mineral-phase and chemical interactions with SOM inputs from the vegetative zone. Biotic transformations are fewer and disturbances less likely producing more favourable conditions for SOM persistence. The thicknesses of the two zones and their transport connectivity are dynamic (time-variable) and affected by plant cover, land use practices, climate and feedbacks from SOM stock in each layer. Vegetative zone boundary conditions vary spatially at landscape scales (vegetative cover) and temporally at decadal scales (climate). Mineral-matrix zone boundary conditions vary spatially at landscape scales (geology, topography) but change only slowly. Consideration of the framework structure identifies critical knowledge needed to advance the emerging paradigm of SOM dynamics. Application of the framework to decadal, data-rich soil monitoring sites with and without land use change in the UK demonstrate emergent scale-dependent responses of SOM to climate and land management changes arising from novel feedbacks included in the model.

Biography: Dr. Cosby has over 40 years of research experience in the U.S., Canada and Europe studying the hydrology and biogeochemistry of soils and natural waters. His research focuses on development of process-based ecosystem models for catchment soils, low-order streams and small lakes, and coastal and estuarine systems. He uses these models for increasing scientific understanding and as tools for knowledge transfer and environmental decision-making.


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