Path creation or path dependence? Unleashing entrepreneurial responses to tourism development

Mr Yoshi Abe1, Dr Tod Jones2

1William Angliss Institute, Melbourne, Australia,

2Curtin University, Perth, Australia


This research applies the theoretical framework of evolutionary economic geography (EEG) to look at how tourism attractions evolve in remote regions where cultural traditions have long been long central to tourism visitations. We demonstrate the usefulness of EEG as a theoretical framework and focus on the role of entrepreneurs and local governments in path shaping processes by applying the concepts of path dependency and path creation.

This research is based on field work conducted in 2018 and 2019 in the Toraja region, South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Applying a real-time approach to monitor path shaping processes, the research reveals the details and complexity of responses by the local tourism industry to endogenous and exogenous influences. The research reveals the importance of flexible development strategies and supportive local government policies in the development of new types of local tourism attractions.


Yoshi Abe is a tourism lecturer at William Angliss Institute. Currently undertaking PhD studies at Curtin University, he is researching the application of evolutionary economic geography on tourism development. He has a Master of Arts in anthropology from the University of Melbourne and Master of Tourism from Monash University.


An Investigation Of Stakeholders’ Experiences of Golf-Based Tourism Development in a Peri-Urban Landscape in Vietnam

Ms Quynh Pham1

1Guss, Rmit University, Melbourne, Australia


This study investigates stakeholders’ experiences of landscape change in the peri-urban region of Hai Phong City, Vietnam. Agriculture in this region is being replaced in some areas by leisure-based consumption in the form of golf-based tourism. Vietnam, as one of the few countries that declared themselves a socialist country espousing a Marxist-Leninist political philosophy, presents a unique case for studying land acquisition processes associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. This research seeks to understand the impacts of this transformation on the various stakeholders (displaced farmers, remaining farmers, golf course developers, local authorities, golf course employees) affected by the project. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and observation will be used to identify how participants have engaged with or been impacted by the project. It is anticipated that this study will inform future policy a practice concerning the leisuring of farming landscapes in Vietnam, to promote more equitable outcomes for all stakeholders.


Quynh has been teaching Human Geography and ESP courses in Faculty of Geography at Hanoi National University of Education.

Quynh joined in two International projects: The American Association of Geographers (AAG) project in building online-modules for undergraduate students in 2010 and the UNDP pilot project about Multidimensional poverty in Hochiminh City in 2015.

She received a University Scholarship to study International Master program in 2008 and the Australian Leadership Fellowship Award (ALAF) in 2013 to study at Monash University.

In 2017, Quynh joined RMIT University in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies as a PhD Candidate.

Role of Tiger Ecosystem Services in Sustainable Development of Ranthambhore Areas, Rajasthan, India: Perspective of Eco-Entrepreneurship

Dr Bhanwar Vishvendra Raj Singh1

1Department Of Geography, Faculty Of Earth Sciences, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India, Udaipur, India


Sustainable Tiger Tourism can lead to the better social and natural inclusion of society. We, know, climate change has been connected to the endangerment and extinction of many flora and fauna. It rapid and widespread phenomenon is extremely challenging for global biodiversity, ecosystems and the future earth.

Meanwhile, the tiger ecosystem services are defiantly mitigated and adaption of social inclusion through increase forest cover, water quality, quality of life, global carbon cycle, economic growth, demographics, and agriculture, and forest products, regional and planning policies through sustainable conservation practices.

The Ranthambhore have a more than 60 tigers and about 0.5 million people directly or indirectly interdepended on tiger tourism services. It influences both environmental quality and the quality of life of native people. If we will do in sustainable manner of tiger conservation that is the success of tiger species which is the automatically preserve the natural anf human habitat.

The paper focuses on the role of ecosystem services in the social inclusion of Ranthambhore areas, which is possible through cultural ecosystem services,

Eventually, to prepare one consensus and one vision for sustainable development of local communities of Ranthambhore areas, which is more holistic, inclusive and ecological equilibrium for all stakeholders.

Exploring the Global-Local Gap in Chinese Tourism: A Place Making Perspective

Mr Zhikang Wang1

1Department of Geography, University Of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong


A gap usually exists between global norms of the tourism industry and local particularities at the toured places. While various researches have examined implications of this so-called “global-local gap” worldwide, research into the gap within the context of Chinese tourism is inadequate. Drawing on theories of glocalization and “place making” in tourism, this study explores the case of Dongao Island, a resort island in southern China; and is informed by fieldwork involving participatory observation and in-depth interviews with tourists, locals, practitioners and government officials. This study analyses both the top-down “placemaking” and bottom-up “place-making” processes across three dimensions, namely the physical, the practical and the mental. Findings suggest that gaps exist not only 1) between the top-down and the bottom-up, i.e. the globally-recognized norms of tourism development and the locally-specific Chinese tourist experiences and community participation in tourism; but also 2) within the top-down placemaking process itself, between the strategies of global tourism ventures and the visions of the Chinese state. These results may contribute to broader theoretical debates on theories of place making in geography while empirically contributing to knowledge of the global-local nexus within Chinese tourism.


Mr. WANG, Zhikang is an MPhil student in the Department of Geography at the University of Hong Kong. His research interests lie in tourism geographies and Chinese tourism, with a current focus on theories of place and island tourism within China.

Tourism and climate change in China: a research agenda for geography

Dr Benjamin Iaquinto1

1Department Of Geography, University Of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, China


Tourism is a major contributor to climate change as it is responsible for 8% of global carbon emissions. Yet tourism is also considered one of the industries least prepared for climate change. While the tourism industry has experienced exponential growth over the past half century or so, the intensification of climate change and dire warnings by the scientific community call into question its continued growth and expansion. As tourism is an official pillar industry in Hong Kong and a key poverty alleviation strategy of the Chinese government, a thriving tourism sector plays an important role in enabling a prosperous and harmonious China. Geographers can contribute to the task of developing a tourism industry that can thrive despite environmental limits and resource shortages. In this presentation, I extend three ‘invitations’ for geographers working in the areas of transport, climate change and/or sustainable tourism. They are: (i) recognize the considerable resilience of tourism; (ii) engage with the tourism implications of the Anthropocene, and; (iii) develop a research agenda pursuing low carbon and local tourism options.


Dr Ben Iaquinto is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong. He has research interests in the areas of mobilities, tourism geography, cultural geography and the Anthropocene. Forthcoming research projects examine how the Chinese tourism industry could reduce its carbon footprint and better adapt to a changing climate. He is currently on the steering committee of AusMob, the Australian Mobilities Research Network.

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