Importance of fallow season monitoring for evaluating the direct N2O emission factor in the temperate mono-rice field.

Dr Gilwon Kim1

1Western Sydney University, Hobartville, Australia

Scientific Publications (peer-reviewed paper)

  1. Jeong, S.T., Cho, S.R., Lee, J.G., Kim, P.J., Kim, G.W., 2019. Composting and compost application: Trade-off between greenhouse gas emission and soil carbon sequestration in whole rice cropping system. Journal of Cleaner Production 212: 1132-1142
  2. Cho, S.R., Jeong, S.T., Kim, G.Y., Lee, J.G., Kim, P.J., Kim. G.W., 2019. Evaluation of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission factor from lime applied in temperate upland soil. Geoderma 337: 742-748
  3. Khan, M.I., Hwang, H.Y., Kim, G.W., Kim, P.J., Das, S., 2018. Microbial responses to temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dry fallow cover cropping and submerged rice mono-cropping system. Applied Soil Ecology 128: 98-108
  4. Jeong, S.T., Kim, G.W., Hwang, H.Y., Kim. P.J., Kim. S.Y., 2018. Beneficial effect of compost utilization on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in a rice cultivation system through the overall management chain. Science of The Total Environment 613: 115-122
  5. Kim, G.W., Alam, M.A., Lee, J.J, Kim, G.Y., Kim, P.J., Khan, M.I., 2017. Assessment of direct carbon dioxide emission factor from urea fertilizer in temperate upland soil during warm and cold cropping season. European Journal of Soil Biology 83: 76-83
  6. Kim, G.W., Gwon, H.S., Jeong, S.T., Kim, P.J., 2017. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on net ecosystem carbon budget in temperate mono-rice paddy. Geoderma 306: 58-66
  7. Hwang, H.Y., Kim, G.W., Kim, S.Y., Haque, M.M., Khan, M.I., Kim, P.J., 2017. Effect of cover cropping on the net global warming potential of rice paddy soil. Geoderma 292: 49-58.
  8. Kim, G.W., Das, S., Hwang, H.Y., Kim, P.J., 2017. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils amended by cover-crops and under plastic film mulching: Fluxes, emission factors and yield-scaled emissions. Atmospheric Environment 152: 377-388.
  9. Kim, G.W., Gwon, H.S., Jeong, S.T., Hwang, H.Y., Kim, P.J., 2016. Different responses of nitrogen fertilization on methane emission in rice plant included and excluded soils during cropping season. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 230: 162-168.
  10. Kim, G.W., Jeong, S.T., Kim, G.Y., Kim, P.J., Kim, S.Y., 2016. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Emission Factor from Urea during Rice Cropping Season: A Case Study in Korean Paddy Soil. Atmospheric Environment 139: 139-146.
  11. Haque, M.M., Kim, G.W., Kim, P.J., Kim, S.Y. 2016. Comparison of net global warming potential between continuous flooding and midseason drainage in monsoon region paddy during rice cropping. Field Crops Research 193: 133-142.
  12. Kim, G.W., Ho, A., Kim, P.J., Kim, S.Y. 2016. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover. Waste Management 55: 306-312
  13. Atulba, S.L., Gutierrez, J., Kim, G.W., Kim, S.Y., Khan, M.I., Lee, Y.B., Kim, P.J. 2015. Evaluation of rice root oxidizing potential using digital image analysis. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 58: 463-471.
  14. Haque, M.M., Kim, S.Y., Kim, G.W., Kim, P.J. 2015. Optimization of removal and recycling ratio of cover crop biomass using carbon balance to sustain soil organic carbon stocks in a mono-rice paddy system. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 207: 119-125.
  15. Hwang, H.Y., Kim, G.W., Lee, Y.B., Kim, P.J., Kim, S.Y. 2015. Improvement of the value of green manure via mixed hairy vetch and barley cultivation in temperate paddy soil. Field Crops Research 183: 138-146.
  16. Gutierrez, J., Atulba, S.L., Kim, G.W., Kim, P.J. 2014. Importance of rice root oxidation potential as a regulator of CH4 production under waterlogged conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 50: 861-868.



In temperate mono-rice paddy fields, rice is cultivated for 100-140 days under submerged conditions during the summer period, and thereafter, the field remains under dry conditions during the winter and spring seasons. However, the early developed nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factor (EF) was only based on seasonal (rice cropping period) N2O fluxes, which resulted in lower N2O EF than the default value (0.3%) used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Furthermore, the long fallow season may be favorable for nitrification and substantially result in increased N2O emissions. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of N2O emissions during the dry fallow season on the annual N2O EF. The N2O emission rates were sequentially characterized during the rice cropping and the fallow season under four different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for rice cultivation. The urea was applied at four different (0, 45, 90 and 180 kg N ha-1) levels, and rice was cultivated under submerged conditions during late May to early October. The seasonal N2O fluxes during the rice cropping and fallow seasons clearly increased with increasing N application rates. In the N fertilized plots, the mean N2O emission rates were higher during the fertilized cropping season than the fallow season, but the seasonal fluxes were much higher during the unfertilized fallow season, due to the long dry period. The seasonal N2O EF, which was estimated by the increased N2O flux with N fertilizer, was only 0.0015-0.0017 kg N2O-N kg-1 N during rice cropping. However, the annual N2O EF combining the two seasonal N2O fluxes markedly increased to 0.0028-0.0031 kg N2O-N kg-1 N, which was very close to the N2O EF of the IPCC. Conclusively, the N2O EF in mono-rice paddy fields should be developed using the annual N2O fluxes and not only the cropping seasonal N2O fluxes.


My research is focused on Establishment of sustainable soil ecosystem management strategy ① for increasing soil carbon stock and ② increasing crop yield and reducing greenhouse gas emission impact from arable land. Particularly, I am interested in plant and fertilizer management on CH4 and N2O emission from agricultural land.

About provides delegate registration, website and app solutions, and financial management for conferences, conventions and scientific meetings.

Terms & Conditions

All registrations and bookings are subject to our standard term and conditions.

Contact Us

Please contact the team at with any questions regarding the conference.
© 2017 - 2020 Conference Design Pty Ltd. is a division of Conference Design Pty Ltd.